English pronunciation: How do you go about teaching it?
In the Poppies Foundation Plus Course, we are now dealing with one of the components of Linguistic Competence. As usual, we connect these aspects with our syllabus, units and how we teach. The post first appeared here on 27th February 2018. There are a few slight changes.
Let’s start by considering…
How we learn unfamiliar sounds and phonetic patterns
When teaching the spoken language it is essential to take into account how humans learn unfamiliar sounds and phonetic patterns.
- Initially, our brain registers those sounds as undifferentiated from the ones a person is familiar with.
- As exposure continues, the listener’s brain learns to differentiate among different sounds. Then, among short sequences of sounds that correspond to words or parts of words. Neural connections that reflect this learning process are formed in the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere for most individuals.
- With further exposure, both the simple and complex circuits ─which correspond to simple sounds and sequences of sounds─ are activated at virtually the same time and more easily.
What we learn from research
Research has also shown that these neural connections are formed not only in terms of sounds. They are also formed with other regions of the brain associated with visual, tactile and even olfactory information related to the sound of the word. All of which give meaning to such sound.
Neural activity is not unidirectional
Moreover, the flow of neural activity is not unidirectional, from simple to complex. It also goes from complex to simple. In the early stages of learning, the neural circuits are activated in bits, incompletely and weakly. With more experience, practice, and exposure these neural circuits achieve an increasingly complete picture of what is being learnt. The more the exposure, the less the input required to activate the whole picture. In this respect, knowing what the problems are, will be essential to tackle the specific problems each student has.
English pronunciation: Word stress in English and in Spanish
The teaching of word stress in English words is very important. This is particularly so because the stressed syllable in a word has roughly the same length as all the unstressed syllables together. So while in Spanish it is only a question of loudness, in English it is a question of loudness and time length.
The importance of stress
Thus, for example, both in English and in Spanish not placing the stress on the appropriate syllable (loudness) may lead to serious misunderstanding. This may be so because there are two words which have the same sound, but different meaning. Think, for example, of the difference in Spanish between LIbro and liBRÓ.
to avoid confusion
Even when there are no such pairs, though, placing the stress on a different syllable may easily lead to the listener perceiving a different word like, for example, understanding “reTAIN” instead of “WRItten” if the stress were misplaced on the latter and pronounced as “writTEN”. On the other hand, words such as COMfortable, in English, have the stressed syllable with the same duration as all the weak syllables together.
Teaching word stress in English
This is why it is essential to teach the intonation and stress pattern of a word when we introduce it for the first time or when the teacher sees that it is mis-stressed.
There are different techniques (e.g. repetition, writing the stressed syllable in capital letters, marking it, exaggerating its stress, etc.) to draw the students’ attention to their problems with word stress.
Teaching word stress on cognates
One such problem may be caused by cognates and the differences should be pointed out right from the beginning. Thus:
Cognates ending in -ción/-tion
- Spanish words ending in –cion (condición, estación, etc.) have a primary stress on the last syllable,
- while the English words ending in –tion (condition, station, etc.) are stressed on the preceding syllable.
Cognates ending in –al
- Spanish words ending in –al stress the last syllable (capital, animal, natural),
- whereas English words ending in –al stress the third but last syllable (capital, animal, natural)
Cognates ending in –dad/-ty
- Spanish words ending in –dad stress the last syllable (responsabilidàd, humanidàd, dificultàd.
- English words ending in –ty usually have the stress on the third but last syllable (responsibility, humanity), but sometimes the stress falls on the same syllable as the original adjective (difficulty).
Focus on stress when you teach any new word
As rhythm is connected to physical human activities, kinesthetic activities are particularly useful, according to authors such as O’Connor or Celce-Murcia. One of those kinesthetic activities can be done just by using Cuisenaire Rods. Watch how this can be done:
Others, like Lado, advise the use of a musical scale with “dots” of different size representing the words in the tone group. This form is rather visual and the rhythmical beat is clearly seen:
I need a rest
English rhythm patterns
In this line, and arguing that, English being stress-timed, its rhythm patterns are very similar to a musical phrase, Celce-Murcia, Avery and Underhill, among many others, advocate for the use of nursery rhymes, verse, limericks, Jazz Chants or rap.
In this respect, C. Graham has designed many different activities and provided a lot of suggestions and ideas on how to use jazz chants. See for instance: https://www.teachingvillage.org/2010/05/23/how-to-create-a-jazz-chant-by-carolyn-graham/ , or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAYwoLZso7s
We certainly recommend all teachers to watch this video by AdrianUnderhill on Teaching pronunciation